In Illinois, of the 35 species of Papaipema, 1 is likely extirpated, 11 are on the Watch List, and 9 are Species of Greatest Conservation Need, 1 of which is state-threatened. The remaining 14 species have yet to be assessed for conservation status.
To better understand the relationships of the various Papaipema stem borers, we conducted genetic analysis of specimens collected across the central United States.
We were able to amplify DNA from 147 of 154 Papaipema samples and incorporating GenBank and BOLD sequences had 332 Papaipema and 6 outgroup taxa sequences.
Our analysis showed 45 of 47 currently recognized species and 5 presumably new, undescribed species.